9P.2.2.1 Forces
Use vectors and free-body diagrams to describe force, position, velocity and acceleration of objects in two-dimensional space.
Apply Newton's three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion.
Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the universe.
Overview
MN Standard in Lay Terms
The motion of any object will change proportionally in the direction of the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. A car's linear velocity will increase (a change forward) in the forward direction when the car is pushed forward and its linear velocity will decrease (a change backward or negatively) when the braking force is backward. This change in velocity is called acceleration and this change is always resisted by the property of matter called inertia. The interplay of force and inertia is quantified by Newton's Second Law: F=ma. The forces experienced by objects during the time of a collision can best be conceptualized as an interaction of equal magnitude in opposing directions on the objects, a statement of Newton's Third Law. This idea when combined with the second law, allows the change in motion of objects to be formulated as changes in momentum in the formula F Δ t = m Δ v.
The earth's gravity field near its surface can be approximated to a be a constant value. This value of g is commonly used to calculate the weight of an object at the earth's surface and leads to the description of its parabolic trajectory near earth's surface. Newton's Universal Law of Gravity demonstrates the inverse square nature of the gravitational force at distances and is most commonly used to describe objects in elliptical and circular orbits in high school physics.
Big Idea
All matter in the universe has its motion changed by interactions called forces. These forces can broadly be categorized into contact and non contact forces so that students clearly understand that gravity and electromagnetic interactions extend over space. The sophisticated practitioner may question whether any force is truly a contact force (ie. friction, normal forces, pushes or pulls etc.) and choose to categorize the interactions differently but it is clear that the change in the motion of matter is attributed to the unbalanced application of these interactions. Students should learn how to draw, label, and find the net vector sum of common forces that interact with objects such as those caused by surfaces, tensions, springs, gravity, electricity etc. by using "free body" diagrams, algebra, and the basic trigonometric identities. The SI system of units given to a measured force is called the Newton (N).
A fundamental property of matter is that it resists a change in the state of its motion both in its linear magnitude and direction. This measurable property is called the inertial mass of the object or is simply referred to as matters property of inertia. The mechanism for the existence of inertia is still a topic of current research in physics such as in the present search for the existence of the Higg's particle. The SI unit of inertial mass is measured in kilograms (kg).
The interplay between forces and inertia culminate in an effect on the state of motion of an object. Students should arrive at the conceptual and mathematical formulation of Newton's Second Law F=ma by relating the effects of forces and inertia to the rate of change in velocity (acceleration) of an object by direct experimentation. Students should also be able to solve problems using the results of free body diagram analysis and Newton's Second Law to find the net force, mass, and acceleration of an object. The resulting acceleration caused by the force-inertia interplay on an object should be able to be combined with the equations of kinematics to solve problems involving an objects positions, velocities, and corresponding event times. Students should also be able to sketch and analyze solutions to these problems using graphical methods.
Newton's Third Law can be summarized by the statement "forces or interactions always occur in "pairs" in the universe with each interaction acting with equal magnitude but in opposing directions on the interacting objects." Each object receives its own affect from the interaction so the net sum of the pair is not cancelled as some students can misinterpret (as in the classic cart-horse problem). Newton's Third Law is useful for understanding collisions and it, along with the mathematical expression of the second law, F Δ t = m Δ v, is the basis for understanding impulse, change in momentum and conservation of momentum principles for both elastic and inelastic collisions.
Newton's Law of Gravity should be used to explain that objects of matter can be considered to produce a gravity field and experience a force or weight from the interaction with the gravity field that exists due to another object of matter. Like all forces the interaction is of equal magnitude in opposing directions and is experienced by both of the interacting objects. The Universal Law of Gravity shows that the magnitude of the force is proportional to each of the objects gravitational masses and varies as the inverse square of the distance between them. In problems involving falling objects, projectiles, and orbiting objects the inertial mass and the gravitational mass of an object are treated as equivalent. Near the surface of planets the gravity field can be approximated to a constant value g and used to simplify problems involving the calculation of weight, falling objects, and projectiles. This constant value can be determined in the lab in a variety of ways and should be shown to be a special case result of the Universal Law of Gravity.
MN Standard Benchmarks
9P.2.2.1.1
Use vectors and free-body diagrams to describe force, position, velocity and acceleration of objects in two-dimensional space.
9P.2.2.1.2
Apply Newton's three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion.
9P.2.2.1.3
Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the Universe.
The Essentials
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1) NSES Standards:
Forces due to fundamental interactions underlie all matter, structures and transformations; balance or imbalance of forces determines stability and change within all systems. (Interactions, Stability, and Change).
Interactions affect the structure, properties and behavior of matter. Interactions result in forces that may induce change or maintain stability in systems. All known physical phenomena can be explained by only a few types of interactions: gravitational, electromagnetic, and, at the nuclear scale, strong and weak interactions. These interactions are the source of forces between particles and particle decays. Unbalanced forces cause change in motion; balanced forces lead to stability, that is, to no change. Interactions may induce transformations of matter. When a transformation occurs, some things in a system change while others stay the same. Different factors affect the rate of different transformations. (Transformations here include both physical and chemical changes.)
2) AAAS Benchmarks of Science Literacy and Atlas:
from Benchmarks Online - Project 2061 - AAAS (Physical Setting)
Motion (4F):
4F/H1 - The change in motion (direction or speed) of an object is proportional to the applied force and inversely proportional to the mass.
4F/H2 - All motion is relative to whatever frame of reference is chosen, for there is no motionless frame from which to judge all motion.
4F/H4 - Whenever one thing exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on it.
4F/H7 - In most familiar situations, frictional forces complicate the description of motion, although the basic principles still apply.
4F/H8 - Any object maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it.
Forces of Nature (4G):
4G/H1 - Gravitational force is an attraction between masses. The strength of the force is proportional to the masses and weakens rapidly with increasing distance between them.
NAEP
Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress, U.S. Department of Education, 2009.
MOTION
The topic "motion" is divided into two subtopics; one addresses motion at the macroscopic level and the other addresses the forces that affect motion.
Motion at the Macroscopic Level
Objects observed in daily life undergo different kinds of motion (grade 4). The framework distinguishes three kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational) and emphasizes the translational motion of objects in the natural environment (grade 12). Translational motion is more difficult to describe than it appears because descriptions depend on the position of the observer and the frame of reference used. Speed (grades 4 and 8), velocity (grade 12), and acceleration (grade 12) of objects in translational motion are described in terms of change in direction and position in a time interval.
P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time. P12.18: Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational). |
Forces Affecting Motion
Some forces act through physical contact of objects while others act at a distance. The force of a bat on a ball and the downward push of a lead block resting on a tabletop are contact forces. Gravitational and magnetic forces act at a distance (grade 8). Magnets do not need to be in contact to attract or repel each other. The Earth and an airplane do not need to be in contact for a force of attraction to exist between them. Qualitative relationships (grade 8) and quantitative relationships (grade 12) between the mass of an object, the magnitude and direction of the net force on the object, and its acceleration are powerful ideas to explain and predict changes in the natural world.
P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied. P12.20: The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force. P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m. P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them |
Common Core Standards
2) Common Core Standards (i.e. connections with Math, Social Studies or Language Arts Standards):
Math standards
(8.1.1.5) Express approximations of very large and very small numbers using scientific notation; understand how calculators display numbers in scientific notation. Multiply and divide numbers expressed in scientific notation, express the answer in scientific notation, using the correct number of significant digits when physical measurements are involved.
For example: (4.2×104)×(8.25×103) =3.465×108 , but if these numbers represent physical measurements, the answer should be expressed as 3.5×108 because the first factor, 4.2×104 , only has two significant digits.
(9.2.1.4) Obtain information and draw conclusions from graphs of functions and other relations.
Students can plot data of velocity or distance and time to determine the acceleration of an object.
(9.2.2.1) Represent and solve problems in various contexts using linear and quadratic functions.
(9.2.2.3) Sketch graphs of linear, quadratic and exponential functions, and translate between graphs, tables and symbolic representations. Know how to use graphing technology to graph these functions.
Students can plot distance and time for a falling object and determine the acceleration of gravity on Earth.
(9.3.1.3) Understand that quantities associated with physical measurements must be assigned units; apply such units correctly in expressions, equations and problem solutions that involve measurements; and convert between measurement systems.
For example: 60 miles/hour = 60 miles/hour × 5280 feet/mile × 1 hour/3600 seconds = 88 feet/second.
(9.3.1.5) Make reasonable estimates and judgments about the accuracy of values resulting from calculations involving measurements.
For example: Suppose the sides of a rectangle are measured to the nearest tenth of a centimeter at 2.6 cm and 9.8 cm. Because of measurement errors, the width could be as small as 2.55 cm or as large as 2.65 cm, with similar errors for the height. These errors affect calculations. For instance, the actual area of the rectangle could be smaller than 25 cm2 or larger than 26 cm2, even though 2.6 × 9.8 = 25.48.
(9.4.1.3) Use scatterplots to analyze patterns and describe relationships between two variables. Using technology, determine regression lines (line of best fit) and correlation coefficients; use regression lines to make predictions and correlation coefficients to assess the reliability of those predictions.
(9.4.2.3) Design simple experiments and explain the impact of sampling methods, bias and the phrasing of questions asked during data collection.
Mathematics: Trigonometry
Velocity, Acceleration, and Forces are vectors. Problems of these sort reinforce the use of vectors and their components in the area of mathematics instruction.
2010 Minnesota Academic Standards - English Language Arts K-12
Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form
Grades 11-12 Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Minnesota Academic Standards: Language Arts
Anchor Standard | Benchmark |
1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. | 1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. |
2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. | 2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. |
3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. | 3. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, designing solutions, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text. |
4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. | 4. Determine the meaning of symbols, equations, graphical representations, tabular representations, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics. |
5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. | 5. Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas. |
6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. | 6. Analyze the author's purpose in describing phenomena, providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing/reporting an experiment in a text, identifying important issues and questions that remain unresolved. |
7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. | 7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. |
8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. | 8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. |
9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. | 9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. |
10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. | 10. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-12 text complexity band independently and proficiently. |
Misconceptions
1. Velocity is another word for speed. An object's speed and velocity are always the same.
2. Acceleration always occurs in the same direction as an object is moving.
3. Heavier objects fall faster than light ones.
4. Acceleration is the same as velocity.
5. There is no gravity in a vacuum.
6. An object moving in a circle at constant speed is not accelerating
7. Gravity only acts on things when they are falling.
8. If velocity is zero, then acceleration must be zero too.
9. Inertia deals with the state of motion (at rest or in motion).
10. All objects eventually stop moving when the force is removed.
11. Inertia is the force that keeps objects in motion.
12. The force that acts on apple is not the same as the force that acts on the Moon.
13. There is no gravitational force acting on objects orbiting the Earth.
14. Weightlessness means there is no gravity.
15. Students are confused when they think about objects released from a moving carrier such as a moving train. Many believe that these projectiles do not possess forward motion when released and so have no impetus. Consequently, dropped objects move backwards or fall straight down (Millar & Kragh, 1994). Some students think that the speed of the carrier is important and, therefore, consider the motion of an object dropped from a person walking as different from that of an object dropped from a plane.
Students have a misconception with objects dropped from a plane may come from films taken from the bomb bay of a plane, in which the bomb appears to drop straight down. Students do not realize that the plane and the bomb initially have the same horizontal velocity. (Millar, R., & Kragh, W. (1994). Alternative frameworks or context-specific reasoning? Children's ideas about 7the motion of projectiles. School Science Review, 75(272), 27-34.)
Vignette
Minnesota K12 Science Framework, SciMathMN, 1997, p.3-181
Students in Mr. N's physics class ride a school bus to study laws of motion. As students load on the bus, they note that a helium-filled balloon on a long string is secured to the floor of the bus. Mr. N asks students to predict what the balloon will do when the driver goes forward. The driver starts the bus and then accelerates. To the surprise of everyone the balloon moves forward while the bus speeds up. Students are again surprised when the balloon moves toward the back of the bus as it slows down. Finally, through a series of questions, the class establishes that the balloon moves in the direction of the acceleration of the bus.
The driver then moves the bus in several directions, and at different speeds. When the bus travels in circles, the balloon shows that the acceleration is toward the center of the circle. Finally, the driver reaches zero velocity by moving slowly forward, then putting the bus in reverse, using the engine of the bus to make it slow down, stop, and then go backward. The balloon never stops pointing toward the back of the bus, indicating that acceleration never reached zero, even though the velocity did.
Back in the classroom, students want to know why the balloon behaved as it did. The teacher then introduces the concept of acceleration. Students are asked, "Imagine how you would feel if the balloon moved for- ward?" The teacher helps them to understand that according to Newton's first law, their body mass wants to remain where it was, therefore they feel "thrown backward" when the bus speeds up. Mr. N then asks what students felt when going around the circle. They responded that they felt "thrown toward the outside of the circle." The teacher explains that this is their mass tending to go in a straight line and introduces the concept of centripetal force.
Mr. N challenges his students by telling them that at the instant when the bus was stopped - going neither forward or back- ward - the acceleration did not stop. He asks, "What will happen to acceleration at the top of the rise, if I threw a ball upward?" Most students answer "Zero." He reminds them of what they saw happening to the balloon on the bus. The idea that velocity can be zero when the acceleration is not zero is not easy for them to accept or to understand, but since they experienced it on the bus, the students cannot deny it.
Finally, the students calibrate the activity. Students measure the amount of acceleration by using the bus speedometer and a stopwatch to make a scale of degree of slant as a function of acceleration. Mr. N assesses students' understanding by asking students to identify different motions of a hypothetical bus, given several diagrams of balloon positions in that bus.
Resources
Suggested Labs and Activities
Vernier Investigations:
Vernier technology is a source of data collection that allows students to accurately predict and analysis data. The links below are the complete labs as posted by Vernier Software and Technology.
Air Resistance - Observe the effect of air resistance, and determine how the terminal velocity of a falling object is affected by air resistance and mass. (9P.2.2.1.2)
Back and Forth Motion - Qualitatively analyze the motion of objects that move back and forth. Analyze and interpret back and forth motion in kinematic graphs. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Ball Toss - Analyze the position vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time graphs of toss ball. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Cart on a Ramp - Analyze the position vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time graphs of a cart down a ramp. Determine the best fit equations for the position vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs. Determine the mean acceleration from the acceleration vs. time graph. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Determining g on an Incline - Determine the mathematical relationship between the angle of an incline and the acceleration of a ball rolling down a ramp. Determine the value of free fall acceleration (g) by extrapolating the acceleration vs. sine of a ramp angle. Compare the results of a ball with the results of a low-friction dynamics cart. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Graph Matching - Good introduction to motion graphs. Analyze the motion of a student walking across the room. Predict, sketch, and test position vs. time and velocity vs. time kinematic graphs. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Newton's Second Law - Compare force vs. time and acceleration vs time graphs of a low-friction cart moving back and forth. Determine the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. (9P.2.2.1.2)
Newton's Third Law - Observe the directional relationship between force pairs and the variation of the force pairs. (9P.2.2.1.2)
Picket Fence Free Fall - Measure the acceleration of a freely falling body (g) using a Picket Fence and photogate. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Projectile Motion - Using a photogate measured velocity, predict the impact point of a ball rolling of the table. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Static and Kinetic Friction - Determine the relationship between static and kinetic friction and the weight of an object. Measure the coefficients of static and kinetic friction for a block of wood. (9P.2.2.1.2)
Velocity Change: Toy Car Motion - Analyze position vs. time graphs using video of a toy car. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Velocity and Speed - Determine why the magnitude of the average velocity of an object moving along a line is not always the same as its average speed, using a video of a moving toy car. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Velocity and Acceleration - Relate velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs to specific motions. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Determining Constant Acceleration - Examine video clips of several objects in motion along a line and determine which objects, if any, are undergoing constant accelerations. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Demon Drop: A Mathematical Modeling Activity - Predict what kinematic equation will describe the vertical motion of the cage holding passengers on the Demon Drop ride at Ceder Point Park in Ohio. Then develop an analytic mathematical model, which is an equation that describes the details of the cage's motion. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Jumping on the Moon - Using an official Apollo 16 Mission video, analyze the motion of an astronaut's jump to be able to use kinematic equations on the moon. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
2D Vectors: Pool Ball Displacement, Velocity and Speed - Use displacement vectors to find average speed and velocity of an object moving in 2D. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Galileo's Projectile I: Using 17th Century Techniques - Verify Galileo's hypothesis stated about the horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile are independent. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Galileo's Projectile II: Using Contemporary Techniques - Use contemporary computer-based video analysis and curve fitting tools to verify Galileo's hypothesis that the horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile are independent. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Projectile Motion Vectors - Use vectors and vector equations to represent velocity and acceleration vectors quantities. (9P.2.2.1.1 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Friction Cart - Determine where the cart stops based examining a carts position vs. time graph and a quadratic curve fit graph on the data. (9P.2.2.1.2)
Pasco "Explorations in Physics"
Activity 1 -Relative Motion-Frames of Reference (9P.2.2.1.1)
PDF (600 KB) Investigate the concept of relative motion and frames of reference.
Activity 2 - Position Versus Time (9P.2.2.1.1)
PDF (1 MB) Students will compare and contrast their motion as they move back and forth relative to a target in a straight line.
Activity 3 - Velocity-Motorized Cart (9P.2.2.1.1)
PDF (548 KB) Investigate constant velocity
Activity 4 - Acceleration-Cart on an Inclined Track (9P.2.2.1.1)
PDF (516 KB) Investigate the relationship between position, velocity, and acceleration for linear motion.
Activity 5 - Newton's First Law of Motion-No Net Force (9P.2.2.1.2)
PDF (764 KB) Investigate the motion of an object where there is not net force applied compared to the motion when there is a net force applied.
Activity 6 - Newton's Second Law of Motion-Acceleration (9P.2.2.1.2)
PDF (596 KB) Investigate the relationship between mass, acceleration, and force as explained in Newton's Second Law of motion.
Activity 7 - Newton's Third Law of Motion (9P.2.2.1.2)
PDF (956 KB) Determine the force exerted on two objects in a tug-of-war and compare the forces on each of the two objects.
Activity 8 - Friction Force (9P.2.2.1.2)
PDF (712 KB) Investigate static and kinetic friction. Compare the two types of friction for different surfaces. Determine what happens to the coefficient of friction when the normal force is changed.
Activity 12 - Projectile Motion-Initial Speed and Time of Flight (9P.2.2.1.1) (9P.2.2.1.3)
PDF (508 KB) Compare the time of flight of a projectile for different values of initial speed when the projectile is aimed horizontally.
Student Practicum Problems:
Practicums For Physics Teachers (Ryan, Henry and Barber, Jon, 2008)
Two high school teachers developed practicums for students to solve problems using an understanding of physics concepts and critical thinking skills. The link below does not get you to the activity, only an order form for the book. This is the only way of purchasing these practicums.
Static Equilibrium for Beginners (p.50) - Given a protractor, determine the amount of mass on the end of each spring hidden in two cylinders. (9P.2.2.1.2 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Center of Mass (p.52) - Determine where a clamp be placed under a weighted meter stick so it will balance when placed on knife-edge support. (9P.2.2.1.2 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Beams in Equilibrium (p. 54) - Given a weighted beam suspended horizontally by two angled springs, compute the tension force (spring scale reading) in one of the springs. (9P.2.2.1.2 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Static Equilibrium for Nerds (p. 56) - Given a system at equilibrium, a protractor and the mass of one visible weight, determine the amount of mass on the end of three strings hidden in the cylinders. (9P.2.2.1.2 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
The Runaway Cart (p. 59) - Given the mass of a cart, the mass of a falling weight that pulls the cart from rest across a horizontal table, and the distance between two photo-gates, predict the time it will take the cart to pass from the first to the second gate. (9P.2.2.1.1, 9P.2.2.1.2 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Canister and Accelerating Glider (p. 61) - Determine the amount of lead shot needed in a film canister, that hangs on the end of a string draped over a frictionless pulley at the end of a lab table and gravitationally pulls a frictionless cart of known mass, to produce an assigned acceleration. (9P.2.2.1.1, 9P.2.2.1.2 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
An Uphill Climb (p. 63) - Predict the time a given mass released from rest at a known height will take to reach the floor, when it is pulling a cart of known mass (not frictionless) up a ramp of a given angle. (9P.2.2.1.1, 9P.2.2.1.2 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Suspended Pulley (p. 65) - Given the mass of a frictionless glider and gravitationally falling suspended pulley, determine the acceleration of the glider. (9P.2.2.1.1, 9P.2.2.1.2 and 9P.2.2.1.3)
Hit the Target Interactive Math Review Problems for Horizontally Launched Projectiles
Instructional Suggestions/Options
Modeling Physics Resources in Motion at Arizona State University
The Modeling Instruction Program is dedicated to
Research-based reform of physics instruction at all grade levels
Sustained professional growth and support for physics teachers
This page serves as a portal to various components of the program. The approach to reform of curriculum design and teaching methodology has been guided by a Modeling Theory of Physics Instruction, the focus of educational research by David Hestenes and collaborators since 1980. Implementation through Modeling Workshops for high school teachers was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation from 1989 to 2005. The documented success of workshops and the enthusiastic response of teachers has stimulated institutionalization and expansion of the program through increased involvement of university physics departments.
Physics Quests from Delores Gende
A WebQuest, according to Bernie Dodge, the originator of the WebQuest concept from San Diego State University, "is an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners' time well, to focus on using information rather than on looking for it, and to support learners' thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation."
Additional Resources
The Physics Classroom: Resource for both teachers and students. Website is sectioned into Read/Watch/Interact, Practice/Review, and Teacher Tools.
1-D Kinematics The motion of objects in one-dimension are described using words, diagrams, numbers, graphs, and equations. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Newton's Laws Newton's three laws of motion are explained and their application to the analysis of the motion of objects in one dimension is discussed. (9P.2.2.1.2)
Vectors - Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Vector principles and operations are introduced and combined with kinematic principles and Newton's laws to describe, explain and analyze the motion of objects in two dimensions. Applications include riverboat problems, projectiles, inclined planes, and static equilibrium. (9P.2.2.1.1)
Momentum and Its Conservation The impulse-momentum change theorem and the law of conservation of momentum are introduced, explained and applied to the analysis of collisions of objects. (9P.2.2.1.2)
Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Newton's laws of motion and kinematic principles are applied to describe and explain the motion of objects moving in circles; specific applications are made to roller coasters and athletics. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation is then presented and utilized to explain the circular and elliptical motion of planets and satellites. (9P.2.2.1.3)
123Physics: Regents Review Questions, Physics Lessons, Videos, and Physics Clipart
The Physics Front provides high quality resources for the teaching of physics and physical sciences courses. You may search or browse the Physics Front in order to find materials appropriate for your physics classes. Additionally, registering will allow you to share your experiences using materials. The Physics Front is a free service provided by the American Association of Physics Teachers in partnership with the NSF/NSDL.
Physccs Quest. WebQuest, according to Bernie Dodge, the originator of the WebQuest concept from San Diego State University, "is an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners' time well, to focus on using information rather than on looking for it, and to support learners' thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
ROLLER COASTER PHYSICS (9P.2.2.1.3)
PROJECTILE MOTION (9P.2.2.1.1)
FORCES AND NEWTON'S SECOND LAW (9P.2.2.1.2)
ComPADRE is filling a stewardship role within the National Science Digital Library for the educational resources used by broad communities in physics and astronomy. This partnership of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), the American Astronomical Society (AAS), the American Institute of Physics/Society of Physics Students (AIP/SPS), and the American Physical Society (APS) helps teachers and learners find, and use, high quality resources through collections and services tailored to their specific needs.
Physics Win or Physics Fail?
Use your knowledge of physics to put these videos to the test!
Inspired by Rhett Allain's physics explanations at Dot Physics, Dan Meyer's blog series "What Can You Do With This?", and Dan's TEDx plea for a math curriculum makeover, I have been collecting video clips that are prime for my physics students to analyze.
Videos are categorized by topic to help teachers locate videos for the concepts at hand. Several videos are listed under multiple topics. The videos are presented without any further questions other than "Physics win or physics fail?" (real or fake?)
If you are looking around for some good labs to use or to tweek, check this site out. Items have been put here for physics teachers, by physics teachers, and range from first-year high school physics to AP material. The emphasis is on labs, but explanatory material is also available. The University sources on the bottom will direct you to even more great material. The collection of materials is growing all of the time.
Vocabulary/Glossary
- Acceleration: the rate of change of velocity vector (magnitude, direction, or both) with respect to time.
- Apparent Weightlessness: an object in free fall or in orbit experiences no normal force so a device such as a scale reads zero even though the gravitational force acts on the object.
- Centripetal Force: the net inward radial force required to keep an object moving in a circular path; it is equal to mv^{2}/r.
- Contact Force: a force generally considered to be between two objects touching each other.
- Displacement: the shortest distance between the final and initial position of a moved body. It is a vector quantity.
- Distance: the actual path length covered by a body. It is a scalar quantity.
- Field Force: forces such as gravity and electricity which seem to act at a distance between objects.
- Free-Body Diagrams: a drawing representing an object and all force vectors acting on that object.
- Free Fall: the motion of a body with respect to the gravitational force alone.
- Gravitational Mass: the gravitational mass contributes to the force experienced by an object of mass in a gravity field.
- Inertial Mass: the inertial mass of an object determines its acceleration in the presence of an applied force. According to Newton's Second Law of Motion, if a body of fixed mass m is subjected to a force F, its acceleration a is given by F/m.
- Net Force: the vector sum of all forces acting on an object.
- Newton's First Law of Inertia: the property of a body to resist a change in its state of rest or its state of motion.
- Newton's Second Law F=ma: the rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the force applied.
- Newton's Third Law Action-Reaction F_{ab}= - F_{ba }: a force always acts between two objects equal in magnitude and opposite in direction respectively.
- Projectile Motion: an object, which after being given an initial velocity, is allowed to fall under the effect of the gravitational force alone.
- Speed: the distance traveled by a body per unit of time. It is a scalar quantity.
- Static and Dynamic Equilibrium: the special case describing the net force sum being zero.
- Universal Law of Gravity: the gravitational force of attraction acting between any two particles is directly proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force of attraction acts along the line joining the two particles.
- Vectors: a quantity, which needs both magnitude and direction to describe it.
- Velocity: the displacement (final position minus the initial position) of the body per unit time. It is a vector quantity.
- Weightlessness: no gravitational force acts on an object.
Vernier Software and Technology - Physics computer interfaces, sensors and probes, software, and curriculum designed to help student record and analyze accurate data.
University of Colorado PhET Simulations
Each of the following simulations allow students to work with and visualize various configurations of gravitational or elastic potential energy and kinetic energy conversions as a powerful supplement to real world experimentation. Students may interact with and vary the physical parameters of the simulations and view energy bar or pie chart diagrams. Transfers of energy to heat can be used and accounted for in the models. Many of the simulations allow students to visualize and engage with phenomena that cannot be done in the high school lab setting. All of these simulations have accompanying lesson plans, student documents, and teacher resources developed by teachers for you to use in your classroom.
The Projectile Motion Simulation at University of Colorado Boulder PHET (9P.2.2.1.1)
Blast a Buick out of a cannon! Learn about projectile motion by firing various objects. Set the angle, initial speed, and mass. Add air resistance. Make a game out of this simulation by trying to hit a target.
Lunar Lander Simulation at University of Colorado Boulder PHET
(9P.2.2.1.1,9P.2.2.1.2)
Can you avoid the boulder field and land safely, just before your fuel runs out, as Neil Armstrong did in 1969? Our version of this classic video game accurately simulates the real motion of the lunar lander with the correct mass, thrust, fuel consumption rate, and lunar gravity. The real lunar lander is very hard to control.
The Force and Motion Simulation at University of Colorado Boulder PHET (9P.2.2.1.1,9P.2.2.1.2)
Explore the forces at work when you try to push a filing cabinet. Create an applied force and see the resulting friction force and total force acting on the cabinet. Charts show the forces, position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. View a Free Body Diagram of all the forces (including gravitational and normal forces). See this page.
The Moving Man Simulation at University of Colorado Boulder PHET (9P.2.2.1.1)
Learn about position, velocity, and acceleration graphs. Move the little man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion. Set the position, velocity, or acceleration and let the simulation move the man for you.
The Gravity Force Simulation at University of Colorado Boulder PHET (9P.2.2.1.3,9P.2.2.1.2)
Visualize the gravitational force that two objects exert on each other. Change properties of the objects in order to see how it changes the gravity force.
Grenfell College's Interactive Physlets (Position, Velocity, and Acceleration vs. time)
Multimedia Physics Studio
Various Multimedia scenarios designed to help students visualize the concepts
1-D Kinematics
See this page.
Web Based Instructional Videos:
The Annenburg Foundation's Mechanical Universe Collection Video on Demand
This series helps teachers demystify physics by showing students what it looks like. Field trips to hot-air balloon events, symphony concerts, bicycle shops, and other locales make complex concepts more accessible. Inventive computer graphics illustrate abstract concepts such as time, force, and capacitance, while historical reenactments of the studies of Newton, Leibniz, Maxwell, and others trace the evolution of theories. The Mechanical Universe helps meet different students' needs, from the basic requirements of liberal arts students to the rigorous demands of science and engineering majors. This series is also valuable for teacher professional development.
2. The Law of Falling Bodies (9P.2.2.1.3)
Galileo's imaginative experiments proved that all bodies fall with the same constant acceleration.
4. Inertia (9P.2.2.1.2)
Galileo risks his favored status to answer the questions of the universe with his law of inertia.
5. Vectors (9P.2.2.1.1)
Physics must explain not only why and how much, but also where and which way.
6. Newton's Laws (9P.2.2.1.2)
Newton lays down the laws of force, mass, and acceleration.
8. The Apple and the Moon (9P.2.2.1.3)
The first real steps toward space travel are made as Newton discovers that gravity describes the force between any two particles in the universe.
9. Moving in Circles (9P.2.2.1.1)
A look at the Platonic theory of uniform circular motion.
21. Kepler's Three Laws (9P.2.2.1.3)
The discovery of elliptical orbits helps describe the motion of heavenly bodies with unprecedented accuracy.
22. The Kepler Problem ((9P.2.2.1.3)
The deduction of Kepler's laws from Newton's universal law of gravitation is one of the crowning achievements of Western thought.
24. Navigating in Space (9P.2.2.1.3)
Voyages to other planets use the same laws that guide planets around the solar system.
The Annenburg Foundation's Physics in the 21st Century Collection Video on Demand
3. Gravity The study of gravity has played a central role in the history of science - from Galileo and Newton to Einstein's 20th century theory of general relativity. Yet in spite of five centuries of study, many aspects of gravity remain a mystery. How can gravity, which in many ways is the dominant force in the universe, be at the same time, by far, the weakest of the four known forces in nature? See how physicists are approaching this question through two topics of intense research in gravitational physics today: short-scale measurements of gravity's inverse-square law at the University of Washington, and the search for ripples in space-time known as gravitational waves at MIT's LIGO facility. (9P.2.2.1.3)
Hippocampus
HippoCampus is a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE). The goal of HippoCampus is to provide high-quality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students free of charge. This site could be used in conjuction with your course to help teach the standards at various levels.
(9P.2.2.1.1) Vectors and Motion
(9P.2.2.1.2) Newtons Laws of Motion
(9P.2.2.1.3) Gravity
and
Win/Fail Physics!
Use your knowledge of physics to put these videos to the test!
Inspired by Rhett Allain's physics explanations at Dot Physics, Dan Meyer's blog series "What Can You Do With This?", and Dan's TEDx plea for a math curriculum makeover, I have been collecting video clips that are prime for my physics students to analyze.
Videos are categorized by topic to help teachers locate videos for the concepts at hand. Several videos are listed under multiple topics. The videos are presented without any further questions other than "Physics win or physics fail?" (real or fake?)
Driver Education
1. Stopping force - an understanding of Newton's second Law of motion helps drivers to understand a fully loaded truck takes more force to stop a car.
2. Importance of seat belts - understanding body's in motion will stay in motion until a force stops them is important for student driver's safety.
Videos to support Car Crash Physics
"Crash" - Science of Collisions (includes curriculum for biology, physics, and Math)
Use the Smart car crash to answer the following questions.
1. How fast is the car going when it strikes the barrier. Convert this answer to m/s (1 m/s = 2.24 mph)?
2. Estimate how long does it take to stop?
3. Estimate the deceleration of the car in m/s^{2}
4. Would a person have survived this crash? Explain why.
Physical Education
1. Direction of force affects of performance of task.
2. Proper exercise form (angle of motion) helps prevent injury.
Science of the Olympic Winter Games:
NBC Learning and FSN put together short science videos with lesson plans dealing with the physics of Winter Olympic events.
Assessment
Assessment of Students
Include questions designed to probe student understanding of concepts, both formative and summative. Identify taxonomic level of questions.
Use the video of a Lufthansa plane landing and answer the following questions. (9P.2.2.1.1)
1. What direction is the wind coming from relative to the front of the plane?
2. What is the approximate angle in degrees between the direction the plane is headed and its actual direction of motion?
3. if the plane's landing speed is 150 mph estimate the speed of the wind
4. Why does the plane veer to the left when it attempts to touch down?
Use the video Apollo 15 hammer-feather drop test to answer the following questions. (9P.2.2.1.1)
1. Where is the experiment taking place?
2. Who does he credit for the experiment?
3. What does he drop and what would you expect to happen?
4. What is the result and estimate the distance they both fall
5. Estimate the time for the objects to drop to the nearest 0.1 sec.
6. Use the expression d = 1/2*g*t2 (where g = acceleration of gravity) to estimate the value for g on the Moon.
Use the video Indy 500 car g forces and turns video of g forces on a indy 500 car traveling at 210+ mph (velocity v=96 m/s). Each turn is 1/4 mile in length. The radius of curvature of the turn is r = 1609/6.28 = 256 m. (9P.2.2.1.1)
1. What is the maximum g force on the video?
2. Calculate the g force as a = v^{2}/r and compare to answer in 1.
Question #1:
Gravity Rocks! (Understanding Student Ideas in Physical Science, Vol. 1, Harrington, R. and Keeley, P. , NSTA Press, 2010, p. 171)
Three friends were talking about gravity. One friend held up a rock and asked his friends whether the gravitational force on the rock depended on where the rock was located. Each friend had a different idea about a place where the gravitational force on the rock would be the greatest. This is what they said:
Lorenzo: "I think if you put the rock on the top of a very tall mountain, the gravitational force on the rock will be greatest."
Eliza: "I think the gravitational force will be greatest when the rock is resting on the ground near sea level."
Flo: "I think you have to go really high up. If you drop the rock out of a high-flying plane, the gravitational force will be greatest."
Which friend do you most agree with? ____________. Explain why you agree with that friend.
Answer: The best answer is Elisa's. This is because the rock at sea level is closer to Earth's center of mass than when it is at the top of a tall mountain or falling from a high-flying airplane
Question #2:
Outer Space Push (Understanding Student Ideas in Physical Science, Vol. 1, Harrington, R. and Keeley, P. , NSTA Press, 2010, p. 95)
A box is lying on the table. You give the box a quick shove and notice that the box slides on the table for a short time and then comes to a stop. You then do the same thing on a smooth floor. With the same push from your hand, the box slides for a longer time, but then eventually comes to a stop. You wonder what would happen if you could push the box in outer space, away from any other planets or atmosphere. If you could give the box the same push, what do you think would happen? Circle the answer that best matches your thinking.
A) The box will move forever because nothing is slowing the box down.
B) The box will slow down because the push that you gave it will eventually wear out.
C) The box will slow down because it will eventually lose all its energy.
Explain your thinking. Describe the reasoning you used for your answer.
Answer: The best answer is A. If there are no forces acting on the box, then the box will continue to move in a straight line at constant speed.
The Physics Classroom - Multiple Choice Conceptual Questions:
Good conceptual multiple choice style questions with answers and reasons for review or use on exams
Description: Questions pertain to the following concepts: scalars, vectors, distance, displacement, position, speed, velocity, acceleration, time, ticker-tape diagrams, position-time, velocity-time graphs, free fall, and kinematic equations.
Description: Questions pertain to Newton's three laws of motion with an emphasis on the following concepts: inertia, mass, force, the Newton, weight, gravity, free-body diagrams, normal force, tension, spring force, friction, coefficient of friction, force of gravity, net force, acceleration, free fall, acceleration of gravity, air resistance, and terminal velocity. All mathematical analyses are restricted to physical situations in which the object moves in one-dimension - usually either horizontally or vertically (but never both at the same time).
Description: Questions pertain to vector principles and operations with the ultimate application to the motion of projectiles. The following concepts are emphasized: scalars, vectors, vector direction, the CCW convention of direction, vector addition, resultants, vector resolution, vector components, SOHCAHTOA, Pythagorean theorem, relative velocity, riverboat problems, projectiles, projectile motion, trajectory, projectile mathematics, kinematic equations, maximum range, velocity components, displacement components, free fall, and acceleration of gravity.
Description: Questions pertain to the application of Newton's three laws of motion and vector principles to the motion of objects. Situations in which forces must be resolved in to components or added together as vectors are plentiful in this review. Kinematic equations are often used ion the analysis. Some two-body problems including a simultaneous analysis of two objects are also included. The following concepts are emphasized: vectors, vector direction, vector addition, vector resolution, vector components, SOHCAHTOA, Pythagorean theorem, equilibrium, statics, weight, tension, two-body problems, pulleys, Atwood machines, inclined plane problems, equilibrium, kinematic equations, friction, and coefficient of friction.
Description: Questions pertain to the application of the momentum change-impulse theorem and the momentum conservation principle to the analysis of collisions and explosions. Some problems involve combining a momentum analysis with kinematic equations or work-energy theorem. Some elastic collisions problems presume a prior knowledge of kinetic energy. Some problems involving two-dimensional collisions require a vector analysis. The following concepts are emphasized: momentum, impulse, momentum change-impulse theorem, action-reaction, momentum conservation, momentum transfer, two-dimensional collisions, momentum vectors, inelastic collisions, elastic collisions, glancing collisions, Pythagorean theorem, and SOHCAHTOA.
Circular Motion and Gravitation
Description: Questions pertain to the application of Newton's three laws of motion and universal gravitation to situations involving the motion of objects in circles and orbiting objects. The following concepts are emphasized: speed, velocity, tangential velocity, acceleration, centripetal acceleration, inertia, free-body diagrams, uniform circular motion, roller coaster rides, roller coaster loops, turns, normal force, weight, force of gravity, free-body diagrams, gravity, gravitation, universal gravitation, inverse square law, free fall, acceleration of gravity, orbits, satellites, Kepler's laws, planetary motion, orbital speed, and orbital period.
(9P.2.2.1.1) 1. Which of the following graphs could possibly represent the position as a function of time of an object in free fall? (Answer B
(9P.2.2.1.1) 2. Which of the following graphs could possibly represent the velocity as a function of time of an object in free fall? (Answer D)
(9P.2.2.1.1) 3. The graph below shows the position of an object as a function of time. During which time interval is the object at rest between 0.0 s and 9.0 s? (Answer D)
A) The object is always at rest except at the instants t = 3.0 s and t = 6.0 s.
B) The object is at rest between 0.0 s and 3.0 s.
C) The object is at rest between 6.0 s and 9.0 s.
D) The object is at rest between 3.0 s and 6.0 s.
E) The object is never at rest.
(9P.2.2.1.1) 4. An object is tossed vertically upward. What is true about the motion of the object when it reaches its maximum height? (Answer C)
A) Both the velocity and the acceleration of the object are zero.
B) The acceleration of the object is zero.
C) The velocity of the object is zero.
D) The velocity of the object is not zero.
E) The acceleration of the object is changing.
(9P.2.2.1.1) 5. For an object that travels at a fixed speed along a circular path, the acceleration of the object is: (Answer E)
A) zero.
B) in the opposite direction of the velocity of the object.
C) smaller in magnitude the smaller the radius of the circle.
D) in the same direction as the velocity of the object.
E) larger in magnitude the smaller the radius of the circle.
(9P.2.2.1.2) 6. An object on a flat frictionless table has a net horizontal force of 10 N exerted on it. What type of motion would the object have? (Answer B)
a. a constant velocity of 1 m/s.
b. a constant acceleration.
c. An increasing acceleration
d. Circular motion.
e. It would not move at all
(9P.2.2.1.1) The figure below shows a graph of Velocity vs. time for an object.
7. What is the motion of this object? (Answer D)
a. It is accelerating at a constant rate.
b. it is decelerating at a constant rate.
c. it is moving in a circle at a constant speed
d. It is moving at constant velocity greater than zero.
e. It is not moving.
8. What is the velocity of the object at t = 0.2 sec? (Answer C)
a. 0
b. -1 m/s
c. 1 m/s
d. 2.6 m/s
e. 9.8 m/s
9. What is the acceleration of the object at t = 0.2 sec? (Answer A)
a. 0
b. -1 m/s2
c. 1 m/s2
d. 2.6 m/s2
e. 9.8 m/s2
(9P.2.2.1.3) 10. What would be the approximate period of revolution of a planet around the Sun, if its distance from the Sun were 0.5 AU rather than Earth's 1 AU? (Answer A)
a. 150 days
b. 365 days
c. 2 years
d. 8 years
e. 12 years
9P.2.2.1.3) 11. The acceleration due to gravity is about 10 m/s2 at the Earth's surface. What is the acceleration due to gravity for a person on the space station orbiting 200 miles above the Earth's surface? (Answer C)
a. 0
b. 1 m/s2
c. 9 m/s2
d. 11 m/s2
e. 15 m/s2
(9P.2.2.1.3) 12. If the Moon were positioned three times as far from the Earth as it is now, the gravitational attraction between the Earth and Moon would be (Answer E)
a. four times as great.
b. one-fourth as great.
c. one-third as great
d. the same as it is now since the distance does not affect gravitational attraction.
e. one-ninth as great.
(9P.2.1.1.3) 13. The figure below shows the motion of a ball toss by a girl. Which what would be the motion in the region B - C? (Answer B)
a. Falling at an angle with a constant velocity of 5 m/s
b. Rising and then falling with an acceleration of -9.8 m/s2
c. Falling with an acceleration of 5 m/s2
d. Moving horizontally with an acceleration of 5 m/s2
e. Falling with a constant velocity of 10 m/s
(9P.2.2.1.1) Interactive Physlet Car Position vs. Time: Use this link to determine the correct position vs. time graph for a moving car
(9P.2.2.1.3) Interactive Physlet Mars Lander: Use this link to determine the acceleration of gravity on Mars
Peer Instruction: A User's Manual, (Mazur, Eric, Harvard University, Prentice Hall, 1997) - strategies and conceptual questions for using Student Response Systems.
Kinematics
CT2: Distance compared to Displacement (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer D
CT3: Flying Bird vs. Human running (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT4: Acceleration of a dropped vs. thrown object (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT5: Velocity of an object thrown up vs. down (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer C
CT6: Graph of position vs. time for a moving train (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT7: Graph of position vs. time for two moving trains (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer C
CT8: Acceleration and Velocity of vertically thrown ball at highest point (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer C
CT11: Monkey Gun and bullet (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer A
CT12: Time for fired projectile to hit target (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer C
Forces
CT1: Horizontal force applied to a cart to achieve a certain velocity (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT4: Weight of a person in an accelerating elevator (9P.2.2.1.2) Answer A
CT5: Action reaction of a locomotion and cars (9P.2.2.1.2) Answer A
CT6: Acceleration of a car traveling on a curve at constant speed (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT10: Inertial force on a person in a car making a sharp turn (9P.2.2.1.2) Answer B
CT11: Newton's third Law (9P.2.2.1.2) Answer A
Gravitation
CT1: Examples of gravity and inertial mass (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer C
CT2: Satellites and centripetal force (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer B
CT3: Satellites and orbital speed (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer B
CT4: Centripetal force on orbiting satellite (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer B
CT6: Force on Moon in Earth's orbit (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer B
Assessment of Teachers
Questions could be used as self-reflection or in professional development sessions.
Modeling Instruction in High School Physics, Chemistry, Physical Science, and Biology
Materials and readings for teacher discussion and use for professional development
The Modeling Method of High School Physics Instruction has been under development at Arizona State University since 1990 under the leadership of David Hestenes, Professor of Physics. The program cultivates physics teachers as school experts on effective use of guided inquiry in science teaching, thereby providing schools and school districts with a valuable resource for broader reform. Program goals are fully aligned with National Science Education Standards. The Modeling Method corrects many weaknesses of the traditional lecture-demonstration method, including fragmentation of knowledge, student passivity, and persistence of naive beliefs about the physical world. Unlike the traditional approach, in which students wade through an endless stream of seemingly unrelated topics, the Modeling Method organizes the course around a small number of scientific models, thus making the course coherent. In 2000 the program was extended to physical science and in 2005 to chemistry, by demand of committed teachers. See this page.
Peer Instruction: A User's Manual, (Mazur, Eric, Harvard University, Prentice Hall, 1997) - strategies and conceptual questions for using Student Response Systems.
Kinematics
CT2: Distance compared to Displacement (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer D
CT3: Flying Bird vs. Human running (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT4: Acceleration of a dropped vs. thrown object (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT5: Velocity of an object thrown up vs. down (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer C
CT6: Graph of position vs. time for a moving train (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT7: Graph of position vs. time for two moving trains (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer C
CT8: Acceleration and Velocity of vertically thrown ball at highest point (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer C
CT11: Monkey Gun and bullet (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer A
CT12: Time for fired projectile to hit target (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer C
Forces
CT1: Horizontal force applied to a cart to achieve a certain velocity (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT4: Weight of a person in an accelerating elevator (9P.2.2.1.2) Answer A
CT5: Action reaction of a locomotion and cars (9P.2.2.1.2) Answer A
CT6: Acceleration of a car traveling on a curve at constant speed (9P.2.2.1.1) Answer B
CT10: Inertial force on a person in a car making a sharp turn (9P.2.2.1.2) Answer B
CT11: Newton's third Law (9P.2.2.1.2) Answer A
Gravitation
CT1: Examples of gravity and inertial mass (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer C
CT2: Satellites and centripetal force (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer B
CT3: Satellites and orbital speed (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer B
CT4: Centripetal force on orbiting satellite (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer B
CT6: Force on Moon in Earth's orbit (9P.2.2.1.3) Answer B
Differentiation
Strategies from The Inclusive Classroom: Teaching Mathematics and Science to English-Language Learners, (Jarrett, Denise, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Nov. 1999)
Thematic Instruction: Theme-based units can help ELL students connect prior knowledge to language and real-world applications.
Cooperative Learning: Students use language related to task, while conversing and tutoring one another.
Inquiry and Problem Solving: Inquiry and problem solving can be used prior to proficiency in English. Inquiry approaches in science can help student's language acquisition as well as their content knowledge.
Vocabulary Development: Students learn the meaning of words best during investigations and activities, instead of as a vocabulary list.
Modify Speech: Teachers can help ELL students by using an active voice, limiting new terms, using visual support, and paraphrasing or repeating difficult concepts. Slowing down speech, speaking clearly, and using a simple language structure will help ELL students with understanding.
Make ELL Students Feel Welcome: Encourage ELL students to express ideas, thought, and experiences. Focus on what student is say, not how they say it.
Book: Science Education for Gifted Students: A Gifted Child Today Reader (Johnsen, S. K. and Kendrick, J., 2005, Prufrock Press, Inc.)
Parents/Admin
Administrators
If observing a lesson on this standard what might they expect to see.
Ideas adapted from Best Practice: Today's Standards for Teaching and Learning in America's Schools (Daniels, H, Hyde, A, and Zemelman, S, Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH, 2005).
1) Students being challenged in thinking how different object's forces interact with each other.
2) Students testing their understanding of motion and forces with investigations or solving real life scenarios using the concepts and associated equations.
3) Students taking on responsibility for their own learning.
4) Student working in collaborative groups, analyzing, synthesizing, and defending conclusions.
5) Students sharing explanations for results of investigation and understanding of concepts.
6) Students continuously assessing and being assessed on their understanding of velocity, acceleration, force, and laws of motion.
7) Students concepts are being built on prior knowledge of motion, graphs, and forces.