9.2.2.2 Motion
Recognize that inertia is the property of an object that causes it to resist changes in motion.
Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma).
Demonstrate that whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object.
Use Newton's universal law of gravitation to describe and calculate the attraction between massive objects based on the distance between them.
For example: Calculate the weight of a person on different planets in the solar system.
Overview
MN Standard in Lay Terms
The speed and direction of an object will remain unchanged in the universe until a net sum force changes the motion. The quantity of an object's inertial mass affects the quantity of the motion changed by the force.
Big Idea
All matter in the universe is in motion. An interaction or "force" is required to change matter's speed, direction or both. This change in motion is directly related to the forces on the object and inversely related to the measure of its inertia, known as mass. Interactions or forces between objects always occur in a "pair" with the force or interaction acting with an equal magnitude in opposing directions on the two objects.
MN Standard Benchmarks
9.2.2.2.1 Recognize that inertia is the property of an object that causes it to resist changes in motion.
9.2.2.2.2 Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma).
9.2.2.2.3 Demonstrate that whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object.
9.2.2.2.4 Use Newton's universal law of gravitation to describe and calculate the attraction between massive objects based on the distance between them. For example: Calculate the weight of a person on different planets in the solar system.
The Essentials
Car vs Motorcycle vs Jet video to start a discussion on force, mass and acceleration
"Gravitation cannot be held responsible for people falling in love" Albert Einstein
Have students calculate the force of attraction between them and their neighbor.
For Teachers:
Interesting video on peoples understanding of Universal Law of Gravity and Newton's Third Law
(9.2.2.2.3) (9.2.2.2.4)
NSES Standards:
AAAS Benchmarks of Science Literacy and Atlas:
from Benchmarks Online  Project 2061  AAAS (Physical Setting)
Motion (4F):
4F/H1  The change in motion (direction or speed) of an object is proportional to the applied force and inversely proportional to the mass.
4F/H2  All motion is relative to whatever frame of reference is chosen, for there is no motionless frame from which to judge all motion.
4F/H4  Whenever one thing exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on it.
4F/H7  In most familiar situations, frictional forces complicate the description of motion, although the basic principles still apply.
4F/H8  Any object maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it.
Forces of Nature (4G):
4G/H1  Gravitational force is an attraction between masses. The strength of the force is proportional to the masses and weakens rapidly with increasing distance between them.
THE BASICS:
NAEP
Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress, U.S. Department of Education, 2009.
MOTION
The topic "motion" is divided into two subtopics; one addresses motion at the macroscopic level and the other addresses the forces that affect motion.
Motion at the Macroscopic Level
The framework distinguishes three kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational) and emphasizes the translational motion of objects in the natural environment (grade 12). Translational motion is more difficult to describe than it appears because descriptions depend on the position of the observer and the frame of reference used. Speed (grades 4 and 8), velocity (grade 12), and acceleration (grade 12) of objects in translational motion are described in terms of change in direction and position in a time interval.
P8.14: An object's motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it is moving. An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time. An object's speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time. 
Forces Affecting Motion
It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces. For example, it takes energy for a baseball pitcher to set the ball in motion toward the batter. Also, pushes and pulls applied to objects often result in changes in motion (grade 4). Principles germane to the relationship of forces and motion serve to motivate the search for forces when objects change their motion or when an object remains at rest even though it seems that the forces acting on it should result in setting it in motion (grade 8).
Some forces act through physical contact of objects while others act at a distance. The force of a bat on a ball and the downward push of a lead block resting on a tabletop are contact forces. Gravitational and magnetic forces act at a distance (grade 8). Magnets do not need to be in contact to attract or repel each other. The Earth and an airplane do not need to be in contact for a force of attraction to exist between them. Qualitative relationships (grade 8) and quantitative relationships (grade 12) between the mass of an object, the magnitude and direction of the net force on the object, and its acceleration are powerful ideas to explain and predict changes in the natural world.
P8.15: Some forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact or when they are not touching. Magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance. P8.16: Forces have magnitude and direction. Forces can be added. The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object. A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes. A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line. 
Common Core Standards
Common Core Standards (i.e. connections with Math, Social Studies or Language Arts Standards):
Minnesota Academic Math standards
(8.1.1.5) Express approximations of very large and very small numbers using scientific notation; understand how calculators display numbers in scientific notation. Multiply and divide numbers expressed in scientific notation, express the answer in scientific notation, using the correct number of significant digits when physical measurements are involved.
For example: (4.2×104)×(8.25×103) =3.465×108 , but if these numbers represent physical measurements, the answer should be expressed as 3.5×108 because the first factor, 4.2×104 , only has two significant digits.
(9.2.1.4) Obtain information and draw conclusions from graphs of functions and other relations.
Students can plot data of force and acceleration to determine the mass of an object.
(9.2.2.1) Represent and solve problems in various contexts using linear and quadratic functions.
(9.2.2.3) Sketch graphs of linear, quadratic and exponential functions, and translate between graphs, tables and symbolic representations. Know how to use graphing technology to graph these functions.
(9.3.1.3) Understand that quantities associated with physical measurements must be assigned units; apply such units correctly in expressions, equations and problem solutions that involve measurements; and convert between measurement systems.
For example: 60 miles/hour = 60 miles/hour × 5280 feet/mile × 1 hour/3600 seconds = 88 feet/second.
(9.3.1.5) Make reasonable estimates and judgments about the accuracy of values resulting from calculations involving measurements.
For example: Suppose the sides of a rectangle are measured to the nearest tenth of a centimeter at 2.6 cm and 9.8 cm. Because of measurement errors, the width could be as small as 2.55 cm or as large as 2.65 cm, with similar errors for the height. These errors affect calculations. For instance, the actual area of the rectangle could be smaller than 25 cm2 or larger than 26 cm2, even though 2.6 × 9.8 = 25.48.
(9.4.2.3) Design simple experiments and explain the impact of sampling methods, bias and the phrasing of questions asked during data collection.
Math
Allow the students to experimentally discover the relationship between mass and weight in the earths gravity field. Hang masses in increasing 50 g increments on spring scales which have Newtons as units. Students should read the scales very carefully. Plot at least 8 data points with Force (N) on the y axis and mass (kg) on the x axis. The slope of the best fit line should be near 9.8 N/kg. Have the students write an equation in the form y=mx+b as example F= (9.8 N/kg)(mass) + 0.1 N and discuss the meaning of the slope constant and y intercept.
Language Arts
2010 Minnesota Academic Standards  English Language Arts K12
Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form
Grades 910 Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Minnesota Academic Standards: Language Arts
Anchor Standard  Benchmark 
1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.  1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.

2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.  2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text's explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text. 
3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.  3. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, designing solutions, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases (constraints) or exceptions defined in the text. 
4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.  4. Determine the meaning of symbols, equations, graphical representations, tabular representations, key terms, and other domainspecific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 910 texts and topics. 
5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.  5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy). 
6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.  6. Analyze the author's purpose in describing phenomena, providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing/reporting an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address. 
7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.  7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. 
8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.  8. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author's claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.

9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.  9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts. 
10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.  10. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 910 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 
Pre Learning: Before students have been given the physics definitions of speed, velocity, and acceleration ask them to write a paragraph about an event(s) in their daily life, sports situation, etc and use the words in their paragraphs. Have some of the students to read their paragraphs aloud.
Learning: Teach the Standard Using Best Practices
Post Learning: Have the students edit their original paragraph and rephrase any sentences correcting for errors in the usage of speed, velocity and acceleration. Ask them to read their original paragraph and their corrected paragraph to their neighbors. Ask for volunteers to share with the entire class.
Misconceptions
From: Hapkiewicz, A. (1999). Naïve Ideas in Earth Science. MSTA Journal, 44(2), pp.2630.
summarized in Science misconceptions
1. Heavier objects fall faster than light ones.
2. Inertia is the force that keeps objects in motion.
3. Acceleration is the same as velocity.
4. The acceleration of a falling object depends upon its mass.
5. There is no gravity in a vacuum.
7. Gravity only acts on things when they are falling.
8. If velocity is zero, then acceleration must be zero too.
9. Inertia deals with the state of motion (at rest or in motion).
10. All objects can be moved with equal ease in the absence of gravity.
11. All objects eventually stop moving when the force is removed.
12. Inertia is the force that keeps objects in motion.
13. If two objects are both at rest, they have the same amount of inertia.
15. The force that acts on an apple is not the same as the force that acts on the Moon.
16. The gravitational force is the same on all falling bodies.
17. There are no gravitational forces in space.
18. The gravitational force acting on the Space Shuttle is nearly zero.
19. Weightlessness means there is no gravity.
Vignette
Dr. J's class had gone through some demonstrations of Newton's Law of Inertia (first law) the day before. Prior to that, his class had been introduced to balanced and unbalanced forces. Today, he wants to start class with a quick formative assessment of yesterday's learning that leads into Newton's Second Law of motion. Dr. J starts class by presenting the picture below to his students:
"In your science notebooks, draw this picture. Then I want you to draw all the forces acting on the book. Remember the size of the force is represented by the length of the arrow, and the arrowhead represents the direction of the force." After students have completed the task, Dr. J has the students share their answer with the rest of the group. Dr. J asks for one group to draw their picture on the SMART board. While the group is standing in front of the class, he asks the group members to explain their drawing. If the drawing is complete, Dr. J thanks the group members. If not, he asks for the other groups for input to complete the drawing of forces. He then presents another drawing:
He describes the situation. "The book is on a frictionless table. You give it a push. After you give it a push, the book follows this path."
"Each image represents the position of the book at a certain time. The first image is after it is moving for one second. The second image is the position of the book after the second second, and so on to the forth second. Draw these images of the book into your science notebook. Then draw all the forces acting on the book for each second, include a label of each force. Remember that this is a frictionless table." When the students are done drawing their pictures and labeling their forces, their share them with their group members. Dr. J calls on a group to draw their images on the SMART board and explain their drawings. If the drawings are complete, Dr. J thanks the group members. If the drawing is incomplete, Dr. J asks for input for the other groups.
Dr. J presents another diagram of the image's position for a four second period:
"Here is another picture of the position of the book during a four second time period. Again, the each image represents where the image is located after each second. Think carefully of what is happening to the speed of the object." He pauses for a few seconds to let his students think. "I want you to draw these images in your science notebook. Again, draw and label all the forces that are acting on the book as it moves across the table." Students draw the images in their notebook and label the forces. They share their answers within their groups. Dr. J has a group draw their images on the SMART board, and describe the forces that are acting on the book for each second. If the drawings are complete, he thanks the group members. If it is not complete, he asks the other groups for input.
"We see that the object increased the distance it traveled every second." Dr. J draws a line between each image to show that the distance increase between images. "If the object is increasing the distance between images every second, what is happening to its speed every second." Students respond that the object is increasing its speed. Dr. J continues, "If the speed is increase, is there an acceleration?" Dr. J writes the equation for acceleration on the board to show that if there is a change in speed (velocity) there is an acceleration.
"Today you are going to conduct an experiment to see if their is a relationship the amount of force pulling an object and the acceleration of the object." Dr. J introduces a Newton's Second Law Lab.
Resources
Suggested Labs and Activities
The Physics Front (9.2.2.2.1) (9.2.2.2.2) (9.2.2.2.3) (9.2.2.2.4)
The Physics Front provides high quality resources for the teaching of physics and physical sciences courses. This topic is broken into units to help in formulating cohesive, effective lessons.
Vernier Investigations:
Physical Science with Vernier: Vernier
Vernier technology is a source of data collection that allows students to accurately predict and analysis data. The links below are the complete labs as posted by Vernier Software and Technology.
Falling Objects (9.2.2.2.4)  Use a computerinterfaced Motion Detector to measure distance and velocity. Produce distance vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs. Analyze and explain the results.
Graphing Your Motion (9.2.2.2.2)  Use a Motion Detector to measure position, velocity, and acceleration. Analyze and interpret motion graphs.
Velocity (9.2.2.2.2)  Use a Motion Detector to measure velocity. Determine the relationship between velocity and release point.
It's Race Day (9.2.2.2.2)  Use a lab motion car or design your own to apply motion concepts. Use a computer to measure motion car velocity.
Newton's Second Law (9.2.2.2.2)  Use a Motion Detector to create graphs that will help determine acceleration. Make conclusions about the relationship between mass and acceleration.
Frictional Forces (9.2.2.2.3)  Measure friction between a wooden block and smoothsurface wood. Measure friction between a wooden block and roughsurface wood. Make predictions about other surfaces. Test your predictions.
PASCO "Explorations in Physics"
Activity 4  AccelerationCart on an Inclined Track (9.2.2.2.2)
PDF (516 KB) Investigate the relationship between position, velocity, and acceleration for linear motion.
Activity 5  Newton's First Law of MotionNo Net Force (9.2.2.2.1)
PDF (764 KB) Investigate the motion of an object where there is not net force applied compared to the motion when there is a net force applied.
Activity 6  Newton's Second Law of MotionAcceleration (9.2.2.2.2)
PDF (596 KB) Investigate the relationship between mass, acceleration, and force as explained in Newton's Second Law of motion.
Activity 7 Newton's Third Law of Motion (9.2.2.2.3)
PDF (956 KB) Determine the force exerted on two objects in a tugofwar and compare the forces on each of the two objects.
Instructional suggestions/options
Newton's First Law Activities:
Students should be allowed to engage with a variety of inertia set ups i.e. table cloth trick, coin into a glass, etc. and for fun pass a set of inertia "competency" tasks for which they will receive a sticker, certificate, belt, jedi level or some such official document declaring them a master of inertia. Allow no student to remain at rest during these activities! Remember that safety should always be a first consideration. Lists of inertia tricks can be found at UW Physics Demo Site
and a wide variety of video examples on you tube.
Newton's Third Law Interactive Lecture Demonstration and Discussion:
Invite two students to the front of the class to do a rubber band "tug of war". The students face each other each holding a force probe connected to the other with a rubber band. The blank force vs time graph for each students force probe is projected on to a screen for all students to see. Ask the class to sketch what they believe the graph for student A will look like as he/she pulls on student B. Ask them to sketch the corresponding force vs time graph for student B during that same time. Make sure that the direction setting for one force probe is the opposite of the other. Perform the event and students can see that the force time graphs are equal and opposite reflected across the time axis at all times. You may do this as a discrepant event or if you have the resources all students may do this as an engagement activity. Think of all of the force pairs you may explore this way.
Exploring g.
How is weight related to mass in the gravity field near the earths surface?
Students use spring scales calibrated in Newton's and take measurements as mass is added to the scale. Careful attention should be paid to the measurements instructing students on how to estimate places on the scale. 810 measurements should be sufficient. The students may then plot the Weight (N) vs the gravitational mass (kg) finding that the weight is directly related to the mass and that the slope of the line is 9.8 N/kg. The students discover that a formula relating weight and mass can be written in slope intercept format can be expressed as W=mg. Discussion can ensue about what might happen to the g constant at distances further from the earth or at the surfaces of other planets or on the moon. What happens to the weight where there is no g? What happens to the mass where there is no g? You may or may not want to make the distinction between inertial and gravitational mass.
Law Breaking Balloons (9.2.2.2.1)
Insight into inertia. If you've taken a helium balloon in a car with you, you may have noticed something a little odd. As you stop and start the car and the passengers lurch forward and backward, the balloon does just the opposite. A listener noticed this, and asked for an explanation.
Videos to learn how to implement the National Standards using Inquiry Techniques from the Annenburg Foundation
1. Introduction
Classroom footage and new footage of scientists in the field explain and illustrate the concept of inquiry.
Additional resources
ComPADRE is filling a stewardship role within the National Science Digital Library for the educational resources used by broad communities in physics and astronomy. This partnership of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), the American Astronomical Society (AAS), the American Institute of Physics/Society of Physics Students (AIP/SPS), and the American Physical Society (APS) helps teachers and learners find, and use, high quality resources through collections and services tailored to their specific needs.
Use your knowledge of physics to put these videos to the test!
Inspired by Rhett Allain's physics explanations at Dot Physics, Dan Meyer's blog series "What Can You Do With This?", and Dan's TEDx plea for a math curriculum makeover, I have been collecting video clips that are prime for my physics students to analyze.
Videos are categorized by topic to help teachers locate videos for the concepts at hand. Several videos are listed under multiple topics. The videos are presented without any further questions other than "Physics win or physics fail?" (real or fake?)
If you are looking around for some good labs to use or to tweek, check this site out. Items have been put here for physics teachers, by physics teachers, and range from firstyear high school physics to AP material. The emphasis is on labs, but explanatory material is also available. The University sources on the bottom will direct you to even more great material. The collection of materials is growing all of the time.
Vocabulary/Glossary
 Distance: The actual path length covered by a body. It is a scalar quantity.
 Speed: The distance traveled by a body per unit of time. It is a scalar quantity.
 Vectors: A quantity, which needs both magnitude and direction to describe it.
 Displacement: The shortest distance between the final and initial position of a moved body. It is a vector quantity.
 Velocity: The displacement, (final position minus the initial position) of the body per unit time. It is a vector quantity.
 Acceleration: The rate of change of velocity vector (magnitude, direction, or both) with respect to time.
 Free Fall: The motion of a body with respect to the gravitational force alone.
 Projectile Motion: An object which after being given an initial velocity is allowed to fall under the effect of the gravitational force alone.
 Centripetal Force: The net inward radial force required to keep an object moving in a circular path; it is equal to mv2/r.
 Contact Force: A force generally considered to be between two objects touching each other.
 Field Force: Forces such as Gravity and Electricity which seem to act at a distance between objects.
 Net Force: The vector sum of all forces acting on an object.
 Static and Dynamic Equilibrium: The special case describing the net force sum being zero.
 FreeBody Diagrams: A drawing representing an object and all force vectors acting on that object.
 Inertial Mass:The inertial mass of an object determines its acceleration in the presence of an applied force. According to Newton's second law of motion, if a body of fixed mass m is subjected to a force F, its acceleration a is given by F/m.
 Gravitational Mass: The gravitational mass contributes to the force experienced by an object of mass in a gravity field.
 Newton's First Law of Inertia: The property of a body to resist a change in its state of rest or its state of motion.
 Newton's Second Law F=ma: The rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the force applied.
 Newton' Third Law ActionReaction Fab=  Fba : A force always acts between two objects equal in magnitude and opposite in direction respectively.
 Universal Law of Gravity: The gravitational force of attraction acting between any two particles is directly proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force of attraction acts along the line joining the two particles.
 Apparent Weightlessness: An object in free fall or in orbit experiences no normal force so a device such as a scale reads zero even though the gravitational force acts on the object.
 Weightlessness: No gravitational force acts on an object.
Asteroids Game (Great fun for teaching about force, acceleration and inertia)
Each of the following simulations allow students to work with and visualize various configurations of motion, forces, and gravitation as a powerful supplement to real world experimentation. Students may interact with and vary the physical parameters of the simulations.
The Lunar Lander Simulation at University of Colorado Boulder PHET
Can you avoid the boulder field and land safely, just before your fuel runs out, as Neil Armstrong did in 1969? Our version of this classic video game accurately simulates the real motion of the lunar lander with the correct mass, thrust, fuel consumption rate, and lunar gravity. The real lunar lander is very hard to control.
(9.2.2.2.4)
The Force and Motion Simulation at University of Colorado Boulder PHET
Explore the forces at work when you try to push a filing cabinet. Create an applied force and see the resulting friction force and total force acting on the cabinet. Charts show the forces, position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. View a Free Body Diagram of all the forces (including gravitational and normal forces).
(9.2.2.2.2)
The Gravity Force Simulation at University of Colorado Boulder PHET
Visualize the gravitational force that two objects exert on each other. Change properties of the objects in order to see how it changes the gravity force.
(9.2.2.2.4)
Web Based Instructional Videos:
HippoCampus is a project of the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE). The goal of HippoCampus is to provide highquality, multimedia content on general education subjects to high school and college students free of charge. This site could be used in conjuction with your course to help teach the standards at various levels or support student learning outside the classroom.
Videos at Hippocampus:
Newtons Second Law (9.2.2.2.2)
Universal Law of Gravity (9.2.2.2.4)
Simulations and Tutorials at The Physics Classroom Website
Universal Law of Gravity Sim Lab
Learn about the concept of universal gravitation as you explore the variables which effect the force of gravity between an object and a planet.
(9.2.2.2.4)
The Car and the Wall (9.2.2.2.2)
Animated video and description of Newton's Laws when a car crashes into a wall.
Tutorial on Newton's First Law
Newton's Laws Worksheets (9.2.2.2.1) (9.2.2.2.2) (9.2.2.2.3)
Universal Law of Gravity Worksheets (9.2.2.2.4)
Driver Education
1. Stopping force  an understanding of Newton's second Law of motion helps drivers to understand a fully loaded truck takes more force to stop a car.
2. Importance of seat belts  understanding body's in motion will stay in motion until a force stops them is important for student driver's safety.
Videos to support Car Crash Physics (9.2.2.2)
"Crash"  Science of Collisions (includes curriculum for biology, physics, and Math) (9.2.2.2)
Use the Smart car crash to answer the following questions. (9.2.2.2.2)
1. How fast is the car going when it strikes the barrier. Convert this answer to m/s (1 m/s = 2.24 mph)?
2. Estimate how long does it take to stop?
3. Estimate the deceleration of the car in m/s2
4. Would a person have survived this crash? Explain why.
Assessment
Assessment of Students
Physics Classroom Numerous multiple choice review questions for students with answers and reasons. (9.2.2.2.1) (9.2.2.2.2) (9.2.2.2.3)
Example Questions
(9.2.2.2.2) 1. If your car accelerates from 20 m/sec to 30 m/sec in 5 sec what is your acceleration?
a. You are not accelerating
b. 0 m/s^{2}
c. 2 m/s^{2}
d. 5 m/s^{2}
e. 10 m/s^{2}
answer C
(9.2.2.2.4) 2. Two ball are released from the same height at the same time. Ball A is released vertically and ball B is launched horizontally. Which one of the following statements is true concerning the objects motions?
a. Ball A strikes the ground first.
b. Ball B travels in a hyperbolic path towards the ground.
c. The heavier ball will strike the ground first.
d. Both balls strike the ground at the same time.
Answer D
(9.2.2.2.3) 3. Which of the following is an example of Newton's third law of motion?
a. the movement of a boat when you jump onto shore
b. a car moving at constant velocity
c. a car moving in a circle at constant velocity
d. a car accelerating at 10 m/s2
Answer A
(9.2.2.2.2) 4. What is the net force acting on a 1000 kg car moving with a constant velocity of 20 m/s?
a. 500 N
b. 100 N
c. 50 N
d. 20 N
e. 0
Answer E
(9.2.2.2.2) 5. What feature do cars have so passengers inside do not have a "severe second collision" inside the car?
a. Very soft bumpers so the car bounces back after the collision.
b. Very hard exterior frames so the car does not crumple in a collision.
c. An exterior frame that crumples under impact in a collision.
d. A large engine so the driver can accelerate backwards quickly in the event of an impending collision.
e. A frame with air bags in the trunk
Answer C
(9.2.2.2.1) 6. The figure at the left shows a puck traveling in a clockwise circle just as it is cut by a blow torch. What path will the puck take after it is cut?
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E
Answer D
7. Which one of the following is a unit of acceleration?
a. m/s^{2}
b. m^{2}/s^{2}
c. m/s
d. cm^{2}/s^{2}
e. kg/s
answer A
(9.2.2.2.1)8. The natural tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion with a constant velocity is
a. Newton's 1st Law of Motion.
b. Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
c. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
d. Newton's Law of Gravitation.
Answer A
(9.2.2.2.4) 9. The acceleration due to gravity is about 10 m/s^{2 }at the Earth's surface. What is the acceleration due to gravity for a person on the space station orbiting 200 miles above the Earth's surface?
a. 0
b. 1 m/s^{2}
c. 3 m/s^{2}
d. 9 m/s^{2}
e. 9.8 m/s^{2}
Answer D
(9.2.2.2.1) 10. Which of the following is an example of constant velocity?
a. an object in free fall accelerating at 10 m/s2
b. car traveling due south at 50 mph
c. a rocket as it blasts off from the launch pad
d. an Olympic skier winding through a slalom course
e. a car traveling in a circle of radius 100 m at 70 mph
Answer B
(9.2.2.2.4) 11. If the Moon were positioned twice as far from the Earth as it is now, the gravitational attraction between the Earth and Moon would be
a. four times as great.
b. onefourth as great.
c. onethird as great
d. the same as it is now since the distance does not affect gravitational attraction.
e. oneninth as great.
Answer B
Assessment of Teachers
Modeling Instruction in High School Physics, Chemistry, Physical Science, and Biology
Materials and readings for teacher discussion and use for professional development
The Modeling Method of High School Physics Instruction has been under development at Arizona State University since 1990 under the leadership of David Hestenes, Professor of Physics. The program cultivates physics teachers as school experts on effective use of guided inquiry in science teaching, thereby providing schools and school districts with a valuable resource for broader reform. Program goals are fully aligned with National Science Education Standards. The Modeling Method corrects many weaknesses of the traditional lecturedemonstration method, including fragmentation of knowledge, student passivity, and persistence of naive beliefs about the physical world. Unlike the traditional approach, in which students wade through an endless stream of seemingly unrelated topics, the Modeling Method organizes the course around a small number of scientific models, thus making the course coherent. In 2000 the program was extended to physical science and in 2005 to chemistry, by demand of committed teachers.
Questions 1  3: The figure at the rights shows a girl tossing a ball.
1. What is the vertical acceleration of the ball when it reaches the highest point?
2. What is the horizontal acceleration of the ball?
3. When is the vertical velocity of the ball zero?
a. When it is released
b. At its highest point
c. When it reaches the same height as the release height
d. Just before it hits the ground
e. The vertical velocity is never zero since it is accelerating
4. When an astronaut is orbiting the Earth at an altiude of 200 km is the force of gravity zero? Explain.
5. A student asks you, if a horse pulls on a cart and the cart pulls back on the horse with an equal and opposite force, it seems that they shouldn't go anywhere. How do you respond?
Peer Instruction: A User's Manual, (Mazur, Eric, Harvard University, Prentice Hall, 1997)  strategies and conceptual questions for using Student Response Systems.
Differentiation
Strategies from Jarrett, D. (1999). The inclusive classroom: teaching mathematics and science to englishlanguage learners. Northwest Regional Education Laboratory.
Thematic Instruction: Themebased units can help ELL students connect prior knowledge to language and realworld applications.
Cooperative Learning: Students use language related to task, while conversing and tutoring one another.
Inquiry and Problem Solving: Inquiry and problem solving can be used prior to proficiency in English. Inquiry approaches in science can help student's language acquisition as well as their content knowledge.
Vocabulary Development: Students learn the meaning of words best during investigations and activities, instead of as a vocabulary list.
Modify Speech: Teachers can help ELL students by using an active voice, limiting new terms, using visual support, and paraphrasing or repeating difficult concepts. Slowing down speech, speaking clearly, and using a simple language structure will help ELL students with understanding.
Make ELL Students Feel Welcome: Encourage ELL students to express ideas, thought, and experiences. Focus on what student is say, not how they say it.
Article: PER research techniques for the multicultural classroom
Parents/Admin
Administrators
Ideas adapted from (Daniels, H, Hyde, A, Zemelman, S, & Heinmann, Initials. (2005). Best Practice: Today's standards for teaching and learning in America's schools. Portsmouth,NH:).
1. Students being challenged in thinking how an object's mass and the forces on it affect the motion of an object.
2. Students testing their understanding of motion and forces with investigations or solving reallife scenarios using the concepts and associated equations.
3. Students taking responsibility for their own learning.
4. Students working in collaborative groups, analyzing, synthesizing, and defending conclusions.
5. Students sharing explanations for the results of investigation and their understanding of concepts.
6. Students continuously assessing and being assessed on their understanding of an object's mass and the forces on it that affect the motion of an object.
7. Students' concepts are being built on prior knowledge of motion, graphs, and forces.