# Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

## A

### Assessment

Frameworks are resources developed to help teachers translate the Minnesota state standards into classroom practice and ultimately, assist in student achievement of those standards. The single resource developed to address a specific cluster of benchmarks is referred to as a “Framework” (singular).">Frameworks on this site refers to questions (declarative or performance-based) that are provided as examples of the kinds of items a teacher might use to monitor student learning. These and similar items could be used in both formative and summative approaches in the teaching of standards.

## B

### Benchmark

A benchmark is the smallest item identified in the MN standards and it represents the separate components of what students should know and be able to do to demonstrate understanding of a standard.

The Minnesota Academic Standards in Mathematics set the expectations for achievement in mathematics for K-12 students in Minnesota. This document is grounded in the belief that all students can and should be mathematically proficient. All students should learn important mathematical concepts, skills, and relationships with understanding. The standards and benchmarks presented here describe a connected body of mathematical knowledge that is acquired through the processes of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation. The standards are placed at the grade level where mastery is expected with the recognition that intentional experiences at earlier grades are required to facilitate learning and mastery for other grade levels.

The Minnesota Academic Standards in Mathematics are organized by grade level into four
content strands: 1) Number and Operation, 2) Algebra, 3) Geometry and Measurement, and 4) Data Analysis and Probability. Each strand has one or more standards, and the benchmarks for each standard are designated by a code. In reading the coding, please note that for 3.1.3.2, the first 3 refers to the third grade, the 1 refers to the Number and Operation strand, the next 3 refers to the third standard for that strand, and the 2 refers to the second benchmark for that standard.

### Benchmark Cluster

Each standard is further defined by a series of benchmarks that provide more specificity about what students are expected to demonstrate or understand. While all of the benchmarks under a standard are derived from that specific standard, there are some naturally occurring groupings or clusters of those benchmarks. For example, in mathematics at grades 9-12, Standard 9.4.3 states: "Calculate probabilities and apply probability concepts to solve real-world and mathematical problems." There are 9 benchmarks that relate to that standard. However in terms of delivering those benchmarks in lessons or experiences for students, it is often convenient to group or cluster those benchmarks in ways that enhance existing connections and make the learning most efficient.

Therefore four clusters of benchmarks have been created for that standard and each cluster has a separate Framework (Counting Procedures - benchmark 1; Simulations - benchmarks 2, 3 and 4; Applying Probability Concepts - benchmarks 5, 6, and 7; and Using Probabilities - benchmarks 8 and 9). While there is nothing that prevents teachers from grouping or clustering benchmarks in a different way for delivery, the Framework clusters presented in this resource will hopefully be found to be a logical and efficient delivery scheme.

## F

### Frameworks

Frameworks are resources developed to help teachers translate the Minnesota state standards into classroom practice and ultimately, assist in student achievement of those standards. The single resource developed to address a specific cluster of benchmarks is referred to as a “Framework” (singular).

## O

### Overview

The Overview portion of each framework lists the standard being addressed, the grouping or cluster of benchmarks in that Framework as well as connections to other state or national sets of standards or resources. In some cases the Overview will also restate the standard or benchmark and discuss the location of that concept in relation to other concepts in the learning progression.

## P

The Parents/Admin portion of each Framework is intended to provide resources or suggestions specifically for that group. In the case of parents, the resources will provide connections to additional information on this particular standard, and suggestions as to how parents can support the learning at home. The Admin information provides suggestions for what an administrator or teaching peer might expect to observe happening in a classroom if this standard were being taught to students.

## S

### Standard Code

A series of digits separated by periods that act as a numeric title to each strand, substrand, standard and benchmark. Please note that the science standards also may include a letter at the strand level of the code.

Math standards codes:
The Minnesota Academic Standards in Mathematics are organized by grade level into four
content strands: 1) Number and Operation, 2) Algebra, 3) Geometry and Measurement, and 4) Data Analysis and Probability. Each strand has one or more standards, and the benchmarks for each standard are designated by a code. In reading the coding, please note that for 3.1.3.2, the first 3 refers to the third grade, the 1 refers to the Number and Operation strand, the next 3 refers to the third standard for that strand, and the 2 refers to the second benchmark for that standard.

Science Standards codes:
The benchmarks for each standard are designated by 5-digit codes. For example, in the code 3.1.1.2.1-

• The 3 refers to grade 3;
• The first 1 refers to the first strand, The Nature of Science and Engineering;
• The next 1 refers to the first substrand, The Practice of Science;
• The 2 refers to the second standard in that substrand, Scientific inquiry is...;
• The last 1 refers to the first benchmark for that standard, Generate questions that... .

### Strand

A strand is a big idea in math or science that describes a large portion of related information in that field. Examples would include Algebra or Geometry in mathematics and Physics or Chemistry in Science.

### Substrand

Substrands only appear in the science standards and they refer to divisions of the strands.

## V

### Vignette

A vignette is a description of what might happen in a classroom during a particular activity or lesson as the teacher interacts with students in the delivery of concepts and standards.

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